1 "Socially." - In his
Independence Manifesto launched on 26th January, 1930. Mr. Gandhi stated
that the British Government had ruined India politically, economically,
culturally and socially.
Mr. Rajah or a Maharajah" - This play of words was indulged
in by Mr. Gandhi at the Lahore Congress in December 1929. Mr. Rajah is
the representative of the Depressed Classes. While a Maharajah of course,
is the opposite.
- Mr. Gandhi started his career in the legal profession.
darling votary." - See Mr. Gandhi's book. "My Experiments
A famous epithet applied by Mr. Gandhi to the British Government.
Drayton." - Birthplace of Robert Clive, founder to the British
Empire in India.
- The capital of British India was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi in 1912.
- Mr. Gandhi was awarded the Kaiser-i-Hind Medal for his services to the
Government in the Great war.
famous August declaration made by Mr. Montague, then Secretary of State
for India, promising responsible self government to India.
"Depression." - 1917 was for England the darkest
period during the war, according to Mr. Lloyd George.
"Repression." - The unpopular Rowlatt Bill, passed
in 1919, giving the Government wide power to deal with the emergent situation
that then existed in the Punjab and other places.
"Reforms." - The Montague-Chelmsford Reforms inaugurated
as a result of the policy laid down in the August declaration.
General Dyer, who ordered firing at a mob at Amritsar in April, 1919.
"National Weeks." - April 6th - 13th. when the
memory of the firing at Jallianwalla Bagh in Amritsar is kept alive in
National Weeks all over India, both by speech and song.
"Non-co-operation." - The Non-co-operation Movement
of which Mr. Gandhi was the sponsor, waged furiously from 1920 to 1922,
when Mr. Gandhi was arrested.
"Silence." - Mr. Gandhi has adopted the habit
of observing a weekly silence on Mondays.
"Charka." - The spinning wheel, the cult of which
is so enthusiastically advocated by Mr. Gandhi.
"Lose Business." - Private distillation of liquor
is forbidden in India, where large revenues accrue to Government from
the sale of liquor. Hence Mr. Gandhi's anti-drink campaign is also an
end." - Several policemen were savagely slaughtered by the
mob at Chauri Chaura in 1922. This unfortunate turn of his non-violent
campaign caused Mr. Gandhi to confess in fasting and repentance that he
had made a Himalayan "miscalculation" in fancying that his campaign
of non-co-operation could remain non-violent.
Prima, in Indis," - i.e., Calcutta, although Bombay disputes
R. Das." - Was the leader of the Swaraj Party during Mr.
Gandhi's temporary retirement from politics. Against the views of Mr.
Gandhi he advocated entering the Provincial Councils and the Legislative
Assembly. During his ascendancy Mr. Gandhi was politically in eclipse.
- Mr. Gandhi's hermitage or retreat in Sabarmati.
Mayo" - i.e., Miss Katherine Mayo, whose book, "Mother
India," had a sensational vogue in 1927. As reaction to Miss
Mayo's Mother India, Ranga Iyer's Father India and K. L.
Gauba's Uncle Sham may be referred to : Editor
of drain inspector." - While Mr. Gandhi thus criticised Miss
Mayo's book, Mr. Wyndham Lewis went one better by styling in the report
of a sanitary inspector gone mad.
"Hand of Satan," - Amidst the chorus of condemnation
that greeted the appearance of Miss Mayo's book in India, persistent cries
were raised that the Government had subsidised the book.
- Lord Birkenhead, who as Secretary of State for India, appointed the
Simon Commission in 1927, consisting of Seven Commissioners, all Members
of Parliament overlooked the claims of Mr. Saklatwala, communist member
from Battersea, and the sole member of the House of Commons who was an
Indian. It is interesting to speculate whether the storm of indignation
because it contained no Indian would have been averted by the inclusion
of Mr. Saklatwala.
"Born in Heaven." - Members of the ruling race
in India are sometimes ironically referred to by non-members as "Heaven-born."
The Indian Civil Service, which until recently was almost entirely British,
is sometimes dubbed the "Heaven born service."
- The Right Hon. Mr. Srinivasa Sastri, one of India's foremost "moderate"
Rajah" - To represent the Depressed Classes.
- To represent the Princes of India.
Iyer." - Author of "Father India." one of the many
retorts to Miss Mayo, and a prominent politician.
Jinnah." - Leader of the "moderate" Muslim group
"Nehru" - Pandit Nehru, leader of the Swarajists,
is reported to have been at one time so famous as to send his soiled shirts
from India to be laundered at a favourite laundry in France.
- Mr. Gandhi himself recounts how he used to wear silk hats and take
dancing lessons in his London days but we have never heard that he at
any time sent his shirts from India, to be laundered at any place other
than at the nearest dhobi's (indigenous washerman).
- Several politicians in India loudly proclaimed that they would not read
the Simon Report and as loudly condemned it. Pandit Motilal Nehru : President
of the Congress, in a speech in June, 1930, said that it would be a crime
to read the Simon Report and a greater crime to buy it. In the same breath
he styled it "a farce." It is not reported whether the venerable
Pandit had committed the crime of reading the Report, or whether he had
committed the folly of having stigmatised it without reading.
year." - In December, 1928. Mr. Gandhi, having returned to
politics, promised the Congress at Calcutta to procure Swaraj in one year
if his programmes were blindly followed. Needless to say the promise has
- One of the innumerable castes into which Hinduism is divided. The Banias
are generally shopkeepers and petty tradesmen renowned for their shrewdness
and bargaining. Mr. Gandhi was born in this caste, and by the ineluctable
laws of Hinduism in it must remain.
Chandra Bose." - An extremist politician of Bengal, where
he leads the clamour for full independence.
i.e. the Viceroy's declaration of 1st November, 1929 envisaging "Dominion
Status" as the goal of British policy in India.
- In November, 1929. Mr. Gandhi welcomed the Viceroy's gesture, but with
conditions. If his welcome was mild in November it had become frigid when
he, along with other Nationalist leaders, met the Viceroy in December.
And on the 1st January, 1930, Mr. Gandhi at the Lahore Congress, declared
for full independence. There was no change, however, in the political
situation in India between November and January.
of heart." - Mr. Gandhi has always been clamouring for a
"change of heart" on the side of the Government. He has not
been heard to advocate a "change of heart" on the part of the
- In his December meeting with the Viceroy.
"Civil Disobedience." - This second anarchic fling
of Mr. Gandhi's was launched in March, 1930, after Mr. Gandhi had given
"legal notice" to the Viceroy though the medium of his first
letter to Lord Irwin.
- The slogan of the patriots.
- Coarse, home-spun cloth affected by Mr. Gandhi's followers. These include
a number of school boys incited to leave their studies to take part in
political activities, which consist largely in picketting liquor and foreign
cloth shops, schools and colleges. Intimidation is a common concomitant
of peaceful picketting.
Palms." - Toddy is a strong liquor made from the juice of
the toddy palm.
dear." - Or to be more correct. "Dear Friend" the
style in which Mr. Gandhi addressed Lord Irwin.
- The reply of the Viceroy to Mr. Gandhi's somewhat discursive epistle
- Mr. Gandhi was appointed "Dictator" by the "War Council"
of the Congress.
Letter." - Written on Mr. Gandhi day of silence, and shortly
before his arrest in May, 1930. It was couched in somewhat hysterical
"Dandi." - The destination of Mr. Gandhi's
famous stroll to the sea to break the salt law and make contraband salt.
- Mr. Gandhi's thrasonical vow, taken by the shore in April, 1930.
"Navsari." - Where Mr. Gandhi had his camp.
and Nasik." - The depressed classes at these two places put
into practice Mr. Gandhi's principle of "Satyagraha" by doing
passive resistance at the gates of the Hindu Temples in order to secure
entry. They were as a result, brutally handled by the higher castes, and
at Nasik were assaulted with the utmost savagery. A deputation of their
representatives which waited on Mr. Gandhi at his camp of freedom, poured
out their woes to him, and asked him to divert his liberalising energies
to securing for them the elementary rights of ordinary human beings. It
was cold comfort to them to hear from Mr. Gandhi's own lips that he, the
"Dictator" of India, was powerless to help them, as he was "only
a poor bania."
- Mr. Gandhi, in one of his April speeches, is reported to have said he
was tired of merely filling the jails, and wanted broken heads.
- Several of Mr. Gandhi's volunteers who with inexpert zeal, rushed, at
the leader's behest, to cut toddy palms, were killed or injured by the
"Salt-sellers." - Hawkers of "contraband"
salt under the aegis of Congress were numerous in India in April and May
- Mr. Gandhi referred to himself and his friends with pride as "salt-thief."
"Dharsana," - The raid on the salt works at Dharsana
conceived by Mr. Gandhi, was actually attempted several times by his followers,
after his arrest.
- Where the Congress were reported to have entered into treasonable intrigues
with the foreign tribes across the border.
to Dacca." - The violence and anarchy at Sholapur in May,
1930, where wounded policemen were reported to have been burnt alive and
savagely cut to pieces, led to the proclamation of Martial Law, while
at the opposite end of India the barbarities perpetrated in the Hindu-Muslim
riots at Dacca in May, 1930, sent a thrill of disgust and horror through
"Spinning." - Mr. Gandhi is so zealous about his
spinning that he is reported to have spun throughout the last interview
he granted to the poet Rabindra Nath Tagore.
"Diviner notions." - Mr. Gandhi is reported to
have exclaimed in February, that he was lost in darkness and was waiting
Divine illumination to guide his next step in the war he had launched
upon the British Government. Early in March he decided to start Civil
Disobedience. Presumably light had arrived in the meanwhile.