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Genealogy of the Mahatma

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 Timeline of Mahatma  for  III : 1913 - 1923
   
September 1913 Helped campaign against nullification of marriages not concecrated according to Christian rites,with Kasturbai and other women being sentenced for crossing the Transvaal border without permits.

October 1913 Gandhi urges a strike by miners, leads a march into the Transvaal.

November 1913 Third satyagraha campaign begun by leading great march of 2,000 Indian miners from Newcastle across Transvaal border in Natal. Arrested three times in four days (at Palmford, Standerton, and Teakworth) and sentenced at Dundee to nine months imprisonment; tried at Volksrust in second trial and sentenced to three months imprisonment with his European co-workers, Polak and Kallenbach. Imprisoned in Volksrust jail for a few days and then taken to Bloemfontein in Orange Free State.

December 1913 Released unconditionally in expectation of a compromise settlement, C.F. Andrews and W.W. Pearson having been sent by Indians in India to negotiate.

January 1914 Underwent fourteen day's fast for moral lapse of members of Phoenix Settlement. Satyagraha campaign suspended, with pending agreement between Smuts, C.F.Andrews, and Gandhi, and with ultimate passage of Indian Relief Act.

July 1914 Left South Africa forever, sailing from Capetown for London with Kasturbai and Kallenbach, arriving just at beginning of World War I. Organised Indian Ambulance Corps in England, but was obliged to sail for India because of pleurisy.

1915 Secured removal of customs harassment of passengers at Viramgam; first incipient satyagraha campaign in India.

May 1915 Established Satyagraha Ashram at Kochrab, near Ahmedabad, and soon admitted an untouchable family; in 1917 moved ashram to new site on Sabarmati River.

February 1916 Gave speech at opening of Hindu University at Benares.

1917 Helped secure removal of recruiting of South African indenture workers in India. Led successful satyagraha campaign for rights of peasants on indigo plantations in Champaran. Defied order to leave area in April, was arrest at Motihari and tried, but case was withdrawn. Mahadev Desai joined him at Champaran.

February 1918 Led strike of millworkers at Ahmedabad. Millowner agreed to arbitration after his three-day fast (his first fast in India).

March 1918 Led satyagraha campaign for peasants in Kheda. Attended Viceroy's War Conference at Delhi and agreed that Indians should be recruited for World War I. Began recruiting campaign, but was taken ill and came near death; agreed to drink goat's milk and learned spinning during convalescence. Khadi became the most potent weapon in the fight for independence.

1919 Rowlatt Bill (perpetuating withdrawal of civil liberties for seditious crimes) passed, and first all-India satyagraha campaign conceived.

March 1919 Organised nation-wide hartal - suspension of activity for a day - against Rowlatt Bill. Jaliyan wala Baug. Troops fire on unarmed crowd killing over 400 people, at peaceful celebration of spring festival in Amritsar, Punjab. Gandhi declares a three-day penitential fast and suspends Satyagraha. Arrested at Kosi near Delhi on way to Punjab and escorted back to Bombay,but never tried. Fasted at Sabarmati for three days in penitence for violence and suspended satyagraha campaign, which he called a Himalayan miscalculation because people were not disciplined enough. Assumed editorship of English weekly, Young India, and Gujarati weekly, Navajivan.

October 1919 After five month's refusal, authorities allowed him to visit scene of April disorders in Punjab. Worked closely with Motilal Nehru. Conducted extensive inquiry into violence in many Punjab villages.

November 1919 Presides over all India Khilafat Conference at Delhi.

April 1920 Elected president of All-India Home Rule League.

June 1920 Successfully urged resolution for a satyagraha campaign of non- cooperation at Moslem Conference at Allahabad and at Congress sessions at Calcutta (Sept.) and Nagpur (Dec.)

August 1920 Second all-India satyagraha campaign began when he gave up Kaisar-i-Hind medal.

1921 Presided at opening of first shop selling homespun (khadi) in Bombay.

August 1921 Presided at bonfire of foreign cloth in Bombay.

September 1921 Gave up wearing shirt and cap and resolved to wear only a loin- cloth in devotion to homespun cotton and simplicity.

November 1921 Fasted at Bombay for five days because of communal rioting following visit of Prince of Wales (later Edward VIII and Duke of Windsor).

December 1921 Mass civil disobedience,with thousands in jail. Gandhi invested with sole executive authority on behalf of Congress.

1922 Suspended mass disobedience because of violence at Chauri Chaura and undertook five-day fast of penance at Bardoli.

February 1922 Arrested at Sabarmati in charge of sedition for writings in in Young India.

March 1922 Pleaded guilty in famous statement at the great trial in Ahmedabad before Judge Broomfield. Sentenced to six year's imprisonment in Yeravda jail.

1923 Wrote Satyagraha in South Africa and part of his autobiography in prison.